Biogas use

Biogas can be used in many different ways. The final choice of biogas utilization method impacts the design and equipment requirements for biogas processing (fermentation process, storage and economics of the biogas conversion system).  The biogas may be applied in direct combustion systems for producing space heating, water heating, drying, absorption cooling and steam production.  The gas used directly in gas turbines and fuel cells may produce electricity. An alternative choice in biogas conversion is the use it in stationary or mobile internal combustion engines, which may results in shaft horsepower, cogeneration of electricity and vehicular transportation. 
A final opportunity exists for sale of the biogas through injection into a natural gas pipeline. As the implementation of brown certificates in Poland allows biogas producers to inject the upgraded gas into the Natural Gas grid, the new effective methods of upgrading biogas to biomethane have to be sought. So far, biogas cleaning to increase CH4 concentration, is being done either through pressured dissolution of CO2 in water or via amine scrubbing. Another method of biogas purification is to use the capillary module with polyamide membrane, which can increase methane content up to 94.4% (Harasimowicz et al. 2007). Among new ways of upgrading the biogas, using halloysite as a sorbent was found effective. Its high porosity and specific surface area, resulting in the ability to absorb heavy metals, are crucial factors to use it in the process of biogas upgrading. It can also decrease or totally absorb hydrogen sulfide, siloxans, ammonia, merkaptans, heavy metals and odours from treated gas, so it can be used in a gas grid or gas turbins (Cebula and Sołtys, 2012). Moreover, specially designed at Gdańsk University of Technology Spinning Fluid Reactor (SFR) and membrane technologies will be tested. Different methods of gas utilization will be tested as well within the ‘POM- BIOGAS’ project implementation, with regard to their effectiveness, costs and socioeconomic effects.